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Sequential megafaunal collapse in the North Pacific Ocean: An ongoing legacy of industrial whaling? 2003-10-02
Populations of seals, sea lions, and sea otters have sequentially collapsed over large areas of the northern North Pacific Ocean and southern Bering Sea during the last several decades. A bottom-up nutritional limitation mechanism induced by physical oceanographic change or competition with fisheries was long thought to be largely responsible for these declines. The current weight ofevidence is more consistent with top-down forcing. Increased predation by killer whales probably drove the sea otter collapse and may have been responsible for the earlier pinniped declines as well. We propose that...
(National Academy of Sciences)
 
Ocean Zoning: Perspectives on a New Vision for the Scotian Shelf and Gulf of Maine 2003-10-01
Stakeholders from the U.S. and Canadian Northwest Atlantic were interviewed to gain their perspectives on zoning the Scotian Shelf and Gulf of Maine. Valuable information about how stakeholders view ocean zoning, its benefits and disadvantages, and whether it should be used as a management tool in these large offshore areas was collected. Most stakeholders thought zoning was a viable management tool that should be implemented on the Scotian Shelf and in the Gulf of Maine, although they also noted that zoning should be used in conjunction with other management tools and might not be appropr...
(Ecology Action Centre)
 
Recovering Canadian Atlantic Cod Stocks: The Shape of Things to Come? 2003-09-01
Between 1989 and 1993 science advisors in Canada recommended major quota reductions for many Atlantic cod stocks. Government response to the advice was initially slow and insufficient to arrest the stock declines. Declines became collapses and complete closures had to be implemented for a number of fish stocks between 1992-1994. At the time of closure, expectations were widespread that it might require as many as 3-4 years for stocks to recover to states capable of supporting substantial fisheries. Those supporting such expectations were helped by some conventionally structured forecas...
(International Council for the Exploration of the Sea)
 
Fisheries of the United States - 2002 2003-09-01
This publication is a preliminary report for 2002 on commercial and recreational fisheries of the United States with landings from the U.S. territorial seas, the U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ), and on the high seas. This annual report provides timely answers to frequently asked questions. SOURCES OF DATA Information in this report came from many sources. Field offices of the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), with the generous cooperation of the coastal states, collected and compiled data on U.S. commercial landings and processed fishery products. The NMFS Fisheries Statist...
(National Marine Fisheries Service (NOAA))
 
Benefits beyond boundaries: the fishery effects of marine reserves 2003-08-28
Marine reserves are areas of the sea where fishing is not allowed. They provide refuges where populations of exploited species can recover and habitats modified by fishing can regenerate. In some places, closed areas have been used for fisheries management for centuries, and until recently natural refugia also existed, inaccessible through depth, distance or adverse conditions. Developments in technology have left few areas beyond the reach of fishing. Recently, the idea of marine reserves as fisheries management tools has re-emerged, developing from ecosystem management approaches, and observ...
(University of York)
 
The fishery effects of marine reserves and fishery closures 2003-08-28
Marine reserves, areas permanently closed to all fishing, are frequently proposed as a tool for managing fisheries. Fishery benefits claimed for reserves include increases in spawning stock size, animal body size, and reproductive output of exploited species. Reserves are predicted to augment catches through export of offspring to fishing grounds, and spillover of juveniles and adults from reserves to fisheries. Protection of stocks and development of extended age structures of populations in reserves are argued to offer insurance against environmental variability and management failure. Model...
(World Wildlife Fund)
 
Global Climate Change and Coral Bleaching on the Great Barrier Reef 2003-08-11
The waters of the Great Barrier Reef are warming and are predicted to continue to do so at an accelerating rate throughout the 21st Century. The increasing temperatures will lead to increased levels of coral bleaching, coral mortality and biodiversity depletion that could have serious consequences for the Reef’s biodiversity, ecology, appearance and dependent recreational use and economic activity. Coral bleaching, some leading to death of corals, has been observed sporadically on the Great Barrier Reef since 1982, and most notably, widespread and seriously, in 1998 and 2002. We explored th...
(Australian Institute of Marine Science)
 
Do Governments Protect the Treasures of Our Seas? Measuring progress on marine protected areas. 2003-06-12
Executive Summary The marine environment in the North-East Atlantic Ocean and the Baltic Sea is under siege from heavy human pressure and many habitats and species need urgent protection. An international framework for establishing networks of marine protected areas (MPAs) in the North-East Atlantic and Baltic exists through the OSPAR (since 1998)1 and HELCOM (since 1994)2 Conventions. WWF has since 1998 been active in promoting network of marine protected areas through the OSPAR Convention, and has since 1993 acted as an independent observer to the HELCOM Convention. At the end of 2002,...
(World Wildlife Fund)
 
Property Rights, Management Plans and Dynamics of Sustainability in the Coastal Kerala 2003-06-12
Environment management plans for coastal zone areas need to be sensitive to the dynamics of property right regimes. With reference to empirical evidence from the coastal zone of Kannur District in Kerala, this paper highlights the necessity of addressing the complexities of property rights for ensuring sustainable management of coastal zones. The paper describes how changing property rights over "virtual commons" in the study area has led to the disappearance of breeding centres for sardines, pomfrets and mackerel in the study area. The paper explains how Kerala?s Coastal Zone Management Plan ...
(Indian Institute of Plantation Management)
 
Local Fishery Management, Private Property of Coastal Waters and Common Pool Resources in Swedish and Finnish Coastal Fishery 2003-06-12
Coastal fishery is a paradigmatic case in the multidisciplinary discussion about integrated and sustainable coastal zone management, access to natural resources by different user groups, and the function of property rights systems. As part of complex natural and social systems with manifold and conflicting interests of different groups, the problems of resource use in coastal fisheries do not only follow from the natural quality of the resource but stem as well from the social complexity of the resource management tasks. Whereas progress in research has been achieved with regard to the methods...
(Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Institute)
 
In 1861, fishermen from a handful of Maine fishing hamlets using small sailboats and baited hand lines were able to catch more cod than were caught in the entire Gulf of Maine between 1996 and 1999 by the entire US fleet... (http://www.csmonitor.com/2008/0201/p20s01-usgn.htm)