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Coral Reef Resilience and Resistance to Bleaching 2006-10-01
Coral reefs are vital ecosystems, providing a source of income, food and coastal protection for millions of people; and recent studies have shown that coral reef goods and services provide an annual net benefit of US$30 billion to economies worldwide (Cesar et al, 2003). Coral reefs are composed mainly of reef"building corals: colonial animals (polyps) that live symbiotically with the single"celled microalgae (zooxanthellae) in their body tissue and secrete a calcium carbonate skeleton. Coral reefs are formed by hundreds of thousands of these polyps and are found in warm, shallow, clear...
(IUCN)
 
Effects of Marine Reserves on Adjacent Fisheries 2006-03-26
Marine reserves have been widely promoted as conservation and fishery management tools. There are robust demonstrations of conservation benefits, but fishery benefits remain controversial. We show that marine reserves in Florida (United States) and St. Lucia have enhanced adjacent fisheries. Within 5 years of creation, a network of five small reserves in St. Lucia increased adjacent catches of artisanal fishers by between 46 and 90%, depending on the type of gear the fishers used. In Florida, reserve zones in the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge have supplied increasing numbers of world...
('Science' Magazine v294 November 2001)
 
Federal Marine Protected Areas Strategy 2005-06-03
The Oceans Act provides the Minister of Fisheries and Oceans with a leadership role for coordinating the development and implementation of a federal network of marine protected areas. The responsibility for the network is shared between three federal departments and agencies with mandated responsibilities to establish and manage marine protected areas – Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Parks Canada Agency and Environment Canada. Canada’s federal marine protected area network is comprised of three core programs including: Oceans Act Marine Protected Areas established by Fisheries and Oceans C...
(DFO Canada)
 
Extinction, survival or recovery of large predatory fishes 2005-01-29
Large predatory fishes have long played an important role in marine ecosystems and fisheries. Overexploitation, however, is gradually diminishing this role. Recent estimates indicate that exploitation has depleted large predatory fish communities worldwide by at least 90% over the past 50-100 years. We demonstrate that these declines are general, independent of methodology, and even higher for sensitive species such as sharks. We also attempt to predict the future prospects of large predatory fishes. (i) An analysis of maximum reproductive rates predicts the collapse and extinction of sensitiv...
(Ransom A. Myers and Boris Worm, Dalhousie University)
 
Status of coral reefs of the world: 2004 2004-12-13
The Status of Coral Reefs of the World: 2004 report documents how human activities continue to be the primary cause of the global coral reef crisis. The report details many new initiatives aimed at reversing this degradation such as by conserving the biodiversity, the economic value and beauty of coral reefs. The report recognises that the major stresses to coral reefs are: natural forces that they have coped with for millions of years; direct human pressures, including sediment and nutrient pollution from the land, over-exploitation and damaging fishing practices, engineering modification of ...
(Australian Institute of Marine Science)
 
An Ocean Blueprint for the 21st Century 2004-09-20
America is a nation intrinsically connected to and immensely reliant on the ocean. All citizens—whether they reside in the country’s farmlands or mountains, in its cities or along the coast—affect and are affected by the sea. Our grocery stores and restaurants are stocked with seafood and our docks are bustling with seaborne cargo. Millions of visitors annually flock to the nation’s shores, creating jobs and contributing substantially to the U.S. economy through one of the country’s largest and most rapidly growing economic sectors: tourism and recreation. The offshore ocean area under U.S...
(U.S. Commission on Ocean Policy)
 
Fully-protected Marine Reserves: A guide 2004-03-08
Fully-protected marine reserves are areas of the sea completely protected from fishing and other extractive or harmful human uses. Since the first fully-protected reserves were established, more than two decades ago, they have stimulated a wealth of research and intense interest. Recent scientific evidence indicates that reserves are not only powerful tools for conservation, but can also provide much needed support for fisheries. There is an urgent need for more reserves in order to address the developing crisis in the oceans. Worldwide, fisheries are in trouble, and habitats and species are b...
(World Wildlife Fund)
 
State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture - 2004 2004-01-01
The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture has changed its appearance – and we in the FAO Fisheries Department hope you agree that it is a change for the better. However, the way we present our view of the state of world fisheries and aquaculture remains almost unchanged. As in previous issues, the report begins by providing an overview of developments in world fisheries and aquaculture, followed by a review of issues confronting fishers and fish farmers, and a presentation of seven in-depth studies undertaken by FAO. The report concludes with some thoughts on the future of fisheries ...
(United Nations Food & Agriculture Organization)
 
Towards a Strategy for High Seas Marine Protected Areas 2003-12-15
Vast expanses of ocean lie beyond the jurisdiction of coastal nations. They include some of the least explored and rarely studied areas on earth, as well as some of the most intensively exploited and heavily degraded environments. This contrast presents a challenge to those interested in safeguarding the marine biodiversity of the High Seas. Marine Protected Areas are one of the tools being used to restore, safeguard and halt negative impacts on the biodiversity of the oceans. This year, in the build up to the V th IUCN World Parks Congress (8-17 September 2003, Durban, South Africa), IUCN...
(World Wildlife Fund)
 
Managing Risk and Uncertainty in Deep Sea Fisheries: lessons from Orange Roughy 2003-11-26
The deep oceans wealth of marine life, including commercial species of fish, is highly threatened by fast expanding and largely unregulated deep sea fisheries, and should be immediately protected from high seas fishing activities. This is the main finding of a report released today by WWF, the conservation organization, and TRAFFIC, the wildlife trade monitoring network. According to the report - Managing risk and uncertainty in deep-sea fisheries: lessons from Orange Roughy - the depletion of fisheries closer to shore and a rising demand for seafood have led to a rapid expansion of deep-s...
(TRAFFIC)
 
"...the great and long iron of the wondrychoun [trawl] runs so heavily over the ground when fishing that it destroys the flowers of the land below the water there..." - Commons petition to the King of England, 1376